«Frankenfish»: that’s the nickname of the first transgenic animal that was recently authorized for human consumption. The issue of GMOs is crucial for our future. Yet, after 30 years of controversy and swirls, the debate seems to have come to a dead end. Today, Genetically Modified Organisms have gained a large market share. GM crops represent 10% of the cultivated surface of the planet. But at the same time, they are banned from many European countries. In fact, the rise of GMOs has triggered an unprecedented wave of protest all over the world, from both citizens and governments. One can wonder: are the economic, political and ideological issues compatible with a scientific view on this subject? Our investigation aims at providing the keys for a rational understanding of how GMOs may affect our environment, biodiversity, health, agronomy, etc. In order to overcome the false evidences and simplistic oppositions, we will not get involved in any ideological battle. During this investigation, we will discover that scientists too are deeply divided on this issue. Among them, the question of independence, freedom of research and objectivity arises again.